When Indonesia's independence from the Netherlands was agreed in 1949, West Papua remained under Dutch control. However Indonesia launched an armed campaign to end Dutch rule there in 1961, and, with US support, was allowed to take control two years later.
A UN-mandated vote was held to confirm Indonesian sovereignty in 1969. Known as the Act of Free Choice, it has been widely criticised as only 1,022 Papuan leaders, supervised by Indonesia, were permitted to vote.
A pro-independence insurgency known as the Free Papua Movement (OPM) began an armed campaign shortly afterwards, which continues to this day.